Oracle Timestamp 타입으로 테이블 파티션 사용하기. Programmer's notes

오라클 timestamp 타입은 나노초 레벨까지 정확하게 시간을 정할 수 있기 때문에 정확한 기록을 남기는 용도로 쓸 때 유용한 타입이며 오라클 9i 부터 추가되었습니다.
이것을 기준으로 파티션을 나누려면 timestamp 를 문자열로 표기하는 방식에 익숙해져야 하겠더군요.
timstamp 타입의 컬럼으로 range 방식의 파티션을 만들때 다음과 같이 나누려다가 계속 삽질을 했습니다.
CREATE TABLE psample (
       ID NUMBER(10) primary key,
       TIME TIMESTAMP(3) NOT NULL,
       LOGINID VARCHAR(16) NOT NULL)
    PARTITION BY RANGE (TIME) (
    PARTITION psample_20070416 VALUES LESS THAN  (to_TIMESTAMP('2007-04-30'))
    );
다음과 같은 에러가 나오거든요
5행에 오류:
ORA-30078: 분할영역 범위는 TIME/TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE 리터럴이어야 합니다
(혹은 ORA-30078: partition bound must be TIME/TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE literals )

파티션 키가 timestamp 인 경우는 다음과 같이 해주어야 하더군요.
CREATE TABLE psample (
       ID NUMBER(10) primary key,
       TIME TIMESTAMP(3) NOT NULL,
       LOGINID VARCHAR(16) NOT NULL)
    PARTITION BY RANGE (TIME) (
    PARTITION psample_20070416 VALUES LESS THAN  (TIMESTAMP'2007-04-17 00:00:00.000 +9:00')
    );

Timestamp 타입을 처음 써보는거라 저도 저렇게 길게 값을 쓰는 것이 영 어색했습니다. 저렇게 길게까지는 안해도 상관은 없습니다. TIMESTAMP'2007-04-17 00:00:00' 이정도 까지만 적어도 되더군요.

이렇게 낑낑거리고 파티션을 나눠놓고 보니 쿼리할 때에도 문제가 되더군요.
파티션으로 나누면 쿼리할 때 기준컬럼에 대한 조건을 주어야 하잖아요? 그래서 그런 것들을 변수처럼 만들어서 사용했더니 실행계획이 영 맘에 안들더란 말입니다. 다음과 같이 나옵니다.

SELECT *
    FROM psample
    WHERE time BETWEEN :temp_1 AND :temp_2
      AND loginid = :temp_3
    ORDER BY id;

    Rows      Execution Plan
===============================================================================================
       0        SELECT STATEMENT GOAL : CHOOSE
     258          SORT ORDER BY 
     258            FILTER  
     258              PARTITION RANGE ITERATOR PARTITION: KEY KEY 
     258                TABLE ACCESS BY LOCAL INDEX ROWID  PARTITION: KEY KEY    OF 'SCOTT.PSAMPLE'
     258                  INDEX RANGE SCAN  PARTITION: KEY KEY    OF 'SCOTT.PSAMPLE_LOGINID'

실행계획상에 정확한 파티션이 명시가 안되더란 말이죠...
아무래도 파싱을 하고 실행계획을 만든 후에 변수값을 바인딩하므로 이와 같은 결과가 발생하는 것 같았습니다.
쿼리에 timestamp 값을 고정시키니 다음과 같이 나왔습니다.
SELECT *
    FROM psample
    WHERE time BETWEEN TIMESTAMP'2007-04-24 00:00:00.000' AND TIMESTAMP'2007-05-25 00:00:00.000'
      AND loginid = :temp_3
    ORDER BY id
   
    Rows      Execution Plan
===============================================================================================
       0        SELECT STATEMENT GOAL : CHOOSE
     258          SORT ORDER BY 
     258            PARTITION RANGE ITERATOR PARTITION: 5 6 
     258              TABLE ACCESS BY LOCAL INDEX ROWID  PARTITION: 5 6    OF 'SCOTT.PSAMPLE'
     258                INDEX RANGE SCAN  PARTITION: 5 6    OF 'SCOTT.PSAMPLE_LOGINID'

위의 경우는 두 파티션에 걸쳐서 쿼리를 한 경우라서 저렇게 나오고 한 파티션에만 접근할 경우는 다음과 같이 나옵니다.
SELECT *
    FROM psample
    WHERE time BETWEEN TIMESTAMP'2007-04-24 00:00:00.000' AND TIMESTAMP'2007-04-25 00:00:00.000'
      AND loginid = :temp_3
    ORDER BY id

    Rows      Execution Plan
===============================================================================================
       0        SELECT STATEMENT GOAL : CHOOSE
      78          SORT ORDER BY 
      78            TABLE ACCESS BY LOCAL INDEX ROWID  PARTITION: 5 5    OF 'SCOTT.PSAMPLE'
      78              INDEX RANGE SCAN  PARTITION: 5 5    OF 'SCOTT.PSAMPLE_LOGINID'

이러한 쿼리를 사용할 때에도 아래와 같이 함수를 이용해서 쿼리를 만들면 실행계획이 살짝 바뀝니다.
SELECT *
    FROM psample
    WHERE time BETWEEN to_timestamp('2007-04-24') AND to_timestamp('2007-04-25')
      AND loginid = :temp_3
    ORDER BY id

    Rows      Execution Plan
===============================================================================================
       0        SELECT STATEMENT GOAL : CHOOSE
      78          SORT ORDER BY 
      78            FILTER  
      78              PARTITION RANGE ITERATOR PARTITION: KEY KEY 
      78                TABLE ACCESS BY LOCAL INDEX ROWID  PARTITION: KEY KEY    OF 'SCOTT.PSAMPLE'
      78                  INDEX RANGE SCAN  PARTITION: KEY KEY    OF 'SCOTT.PSAMPLE_LOGINID'

날짜 리터럴로 적어도 마찬가지이고요.. ^^;
SELECT *
    FROM psample
    WHERE time BETWEEN '2007-04-24' AND '2007-04-25'
      AND loginid = :temp_3
    ORDER BY id
    Rows      Execution Plan
===============================================================================================
       0        SELECT STATEMENT GOAL : CHOOSE
      78          SORT ORDER BY 
      78            FILTER  
      78              PARTITION RANGE ITERATOR PARTITION: KEY KEY 
      78                TABLE ACCESS BY LOCAL INDEX ROWID  PARTITION: KEY KEY    OF 'SCOTT.PSAMPLE'
      78                  INDEX RANGE SCAN  PARTITION: KEY KEY    OF 'SCOTT.PSAMPLE_LOGINID'
파티션을 사용한다는 것이, 그리고 timestamp 타입을 사용한다는 것이 잘 사용하면 좋은 효과를 볼 수는 있지만 만만하게 사용할 만한 것들은 아닌 것 같습니다. 저렇게 바인딩을 하지 않고 쿼리를 사용하면 쿼리를 파싱하기 위한 리소스를 사용하니 그러한 trade off 도 크리티컬한 시스템에서는 고려를 해야 해야되겠네요. 저렇게 ITERATOR 플랜을 타게 되면 성능에 어떤 영향을 미치는지는 데이터가 더 많이 쌓인 상태에서 테스트를 해봐야겠습니다. 뒤의 "KEY KEY" 로 되어있는 부분이 실제의 실행중에 정확한 파티션 범위로 대체되기를 기대합니다. 우선은 ITERATOR 플랜이 나오는 식으로 적용을 했거든요...

위에서 사용한 인덱스는 다음과 같습니다.
create index PSAMPLE_LOGINID on  PSAMPLE (LOGINID, TIME) LOCAL;
timestamp 에 대한 정보는 다음 링크에서 보실 수 있습니다.
정확성을 추구하는 날짜/시간 데이타 유형
Oracle Timestamp

Oracle Partitioned table 에 대한 정보는 다음 링크에서 보실 수 있습니다.
파티션의 이해와 활용

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